The operating systems for achieving anonymity and security are a dime a dozen, but there aren’t many really worthwhile ones. I propose to understand the issue of choosing the best system ready to solve any problems.
Tails OS is a Debian-based Linux distribution designed to provide privacy and anonymity. It is a continuation of the development of OS Incognito. All outgoing connections are wrapped in the Tor network, and all non-anonymous ones are blocked. The system is designed to boot from * LiveCD / LiveUSB and leaves no trace on the machine it was used on. The Tor Project is the main sponsor of TAILS. The operating system is recommended for use by the Free Press Foundation, and was also used by Edward Snowden to expose PRISM.
At the heart of Tails is the task of providing anonymity and security to the user on the network, while maintaining the convenience and ease of use of the OS as much as possible, and just the same she does it well. The whole system works in Live mode and is unloaded into RAM, Tails is not unloaded to ssd or hdd, this is done so that after the session ends, it is impossible to determine what the user was doing on the computer, even having access to the entire device.
This OS is categorically not considered for installation on a hard drive as a permanent operating system. After shutting down or rebooting the system, all downloaded files, browser history, etc. – are deleted.
Whonix is a Debian-based Linux distribution formerly known as TorBOX. Designed to provide anonymity using VirtualBox and Tor. Its peculiarity is that neither malware nor compromise of the superuser account can lead to IP address and DNS leaks. All software included with the system is pre-configured with security requirements in mind.
The Whonix system consists of two virtual machines, Whonix-Gateway and Whonix-Workstation, connected through an isolated network, where the first operates exclusively through Tor and acts as a gateway to the network, and the second is on a completely isolated network.
In this implementation, all network connections are possible only through Tor. The only network access for the workstation is the gateway. The only path for network traffic to and from the gateway is through the Tor network. All traffic, all applications and processes will go through Tor.
Good pluses of the system are the implementation of various Tor + VPN bundles. You can configure the system so that first all traffic goes through the VPN, then through Tor and again through the VPN. Different links provide good anonymity / security.
Whonix is a highly customizable and highly customizable system that sometimes cannot be done in Tails. This OS has many programs and settings that allow you to build an anonymity / security system, remove traces of file use, use instant messengers, work with different types of files, etc.